White phosphorus vs thermite.White phosphorus: The new napalm?
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White phosphorus is used industrially to manufacture chemicals used in fertilizers, food additives, and cleaning compounds. It has been used in the past as a pesticide and in fireworks. It is used by the military in various types of ammunition as an incendiary agent (because it spontaneously catches fire in air) and as a smoke agent (because it. Sep 06, · M15 White Phosphorous grenade I would say that the most important difference between the two is that thermite contains its own oxidizer and cannot be smothered by isolating it from oxygen. White phosphorous, while difficult to smother, still requires an oxygen source. n98n Kind of a GROSS question, don’t you think? “Which is better, white phosphorous or napalm? What about napalm vs thermite?” Wow. Bloodthirsty, aren’t we? I’ll start a brief answer with a VERY GROSS picture and a question of my own. That’s after.
White phosphorus vs thermite.Which is better, white phosphorous or napalm? – Quora
Sep 06, · M15 White Phosphorous grenade I would say that the most important difference between the two is that thermite contains its own oxidizer and cannot be smothered by isolating it from oxygen. White phosphorous, while difficult to smother, still requires an oxygen source. Aug 06, · Incendiary weapons, incendiary devices, incendiary munitions, or incendiary bombs are weapons designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using fire, that use materials such as napalm, thermite, magnesium powder, chlorine trifluoride, or white phosphorus. Though colloquially often known as bombs, they are not explosives but in fact are designed to slow the process of Estimated Reading Time: 8 mins. White phosphorus munitions are weapons which use one of the common allotropes of the chemical element phosphorus. White phosphorus is used in smoke, illumination and incendiary munitions, and is commonly the burning element of tracer ammunition. Other common names include WP and the slang term “Willie Pete” or “Willie Peter” derived from William Peter, the World War II phonetic alphabet for “WP”, which is still sometimes used in military jargon. White phosphorus .
WHITE PHOSPHORUS : Systemic Agent
White phosphorus munitions – Wikipedia
Incendiary weapons , incendiary devices , incendiary munitions , or incendiary bombs are weapons designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using fire and sometimes used as anti-personnel weaponry , that use materials such as napalm , thermite , magnesium powder , chlorine trifluoride , or white phosphorus.
Though colloquially often known as bombs , they are not explosives but in fact are designed to slow the process of chemical reactions and use ignition rather than detonation to start or maintain the reaction. Napalm for example, is petroleum especially thickened with certain chemicals into a ‘gel’ to slow, but not stop, combustion, releasing energy over a longer time than an explosive device.
In the case of napalm, the gel adheres to surfaces and resists suppression. A range of early thermal weapons were utilized by ancient and early armies, including hot pitch , oil, resin , animal fat and other similar compounds. Substances such as quicklime and sulfur could be toxic and blinding. Incendiary mixtures, such as the petroleum-based Greek fire , were launched by throwing machines or administered through a siphon. Sulfur- and oil-soaked materials were sometimes ignited and thrown at the enemy, or attached to spears, arrow and bolts and fired by hand or machine.
Some siege techniques—such as mining and boring—relied on combustibles and fire to complete the collapse of walls and structures. Towards the latter part of the period, gunpowder was invented, which increased the sophistication of the weapons, starting with fire lances. The first incendiary devices to be dropped during World War I fell on coastal towns in the south west of England on the night of 18—19 January The small number of German bombs, also known as firebombs, were finned containers filled with kerosene and oil and wrapped with tar-covered rope.
They were dropped from Zeppelin airships. On 8 September , Zeppelin L dropped a large number of firebombs, but even then the results were poor and they were generally ineffective in terms of the damage inflicted.
They did have a considerable effect on the morale of the civilian population of the United Kingdom. After further experiments with 5-litre barrels of benzol , in , the B-1E Elektron fire bomb German: Elektronbrandbombe was developed by scientists and engineers at the Griesheim -Elektron chemical works.
A further advantage of the alloy casing was its lightness, being a quarter of the density of steel, which meant that each bomber could carry a considerable number. The hope was that the two capitals would be engulfed in an inextinguishable blaze, causing the Allies to sue for peace. Incendiary bombs were used extensively in World War II as an effective bombing weapon, often in a conjunction with high-explosive bombs. Many different configurations of incendiary bombs and a wide range of filling materials such as isobutyl methacrylate IM polymer, napalm , and similar jellied-petroleum formulas were used, many of them developed by the US Chemical Warfare Service.
Different methods of delivery, e. An explosive charge would then ignite the incendiary material, often starting a raging fire.
The fire would burn at extreme temperatures that could destroy most buildings made of wood or other combustible materials buildings constructed of stone tend to resist incendiary destruction unless they are first blown open by high explosives.
The German Luftwaffe started the war using the designed one-kilogram magnesium alloy B-1E Elektronbrandbombe ; later modifications included the addition of a small explosive charge intended to penetrate the roof of any building which it landed on.
Racks holding 36 of these bombs were developed, four of which could, in turn, be fitted to an electrically triggered dispenser so that a single He bomber could carry 1, incendiary bombs, or more usually a mixed load. Less successful was the Flammenbombe , a kg or kg high explosive bomb case filled with an inflammable oil mixture, which often failed to detonate and was withdrawn in January In World War II, incendiaries were principally developed in order to destroy the many small, decentralised war industries located often intentionally throughout vast tracts of city land in an effort to escape destruction by conventionally aimed high-explosive bombs.
Nevertheless, the civilian destruction caused by such weapons quickly earned them a reputation as terror weapons with the targeted populations. The Nazi regime began the campaign of incendiary bombings at the start of World War II with the bombing of Warsaw , and continued with the London Blitz and the bombing of Moscow, among other cities. Later, an extensive reprisal was enacted by the Allies in the strategic bombing campaign that led to the near-annihilation of many German cities.
In the Pacific War , during the last seven months of strategic bombing by B Superfortresses in the air war against Japan , a change to firebombing tactics resulted in the death of , Japanese and the homelessness of five million more. Sixty-seven Japanese cities lost significant areas to incendiary attacks. The most deadly single bombing raid in history was Operation Meetinghouse , an incendiary attack that killed some , Tokyo residents in one night.
The 4 lb 1. It was the weapon of choice for the British “dehousing” plan. It was capable of burning for up to ten minutes. There was also a high explosive version and delayed high explosive versions 2—4 minutes which were designed to kill rescuers and firefighters.
It was normal for a proportion of high explosive bombs to be dropped during incendiary attacks in order to expose combustible material and to fill the streets with craters and rubble, hindering rescue services. Towards the end of World War Two, the British introduced a much improved 30 lb 14 kg incendiary bomb, whose fall was retarded by a small parachute and on impact sent out an extremely hot flame for 15 ft 4.
Articles in late claimed that the flame was so hot it could crumble a brick wall. For propaganda purposes the RAF dubbed the new incendiary bomb the Superflamer. Many incendiary weapons developed and deployed during World War II were in the form of bombs and shells whose main incendiary component is white phosphorus WP , and can be used in an offensive anti-personnel role against enemy troop concentrations, but WP is also used for signalling, smoke screens , and target-marking purposes.
The U. WP was widely credited by many Allied soldiers for breaking up numerous German infantry attacks and creating havoc among enemy troop concentrations during the latter part of World War II. Modern incendiary bombs usually contain thermite , made from aluminium and ferric oxide. It takes very high temperatures to ignite, but when alight, it can burn through solid steel.
In World War II, such devices were employed in incendiary grenades to burn through heavy armour plate, or as a quick welding mechanism to destroy artillery and other complex machined weapons. A variety of pyrophoric materials can also be used: selected organometallic compounds, most often triethylaluminium , trimethylaluminium , and some other alkyl and aryl derivatives of aluminium, magnesium , boron , zinc , sodium , and lithium , can be used.
Thickened triethylaluminium, a napalm-like substance that ignites in contact with air, is known as thickened pyrophoric agent , or TPA. Napalm was widely used by the United States during the Korean War ,  most notably during the battle ” Outpost Harry ” in South Korea during the night of June 10—11, The American official who took this statement declined to publicize it. During the Vietnam War , the U. Air Force developed the CBU , a cluster bomb incendiary fuelled by propane , a weapon that was used only once in warfare.
Reportedly about , tons of U. Weapons intended to start fires. Royal Air Force Historical Society. Archived from the original PDF on 2 May Retrieved 1 May Popular Science. May Retrieved 9 December The Doric Columns. Command Naval Ordnance Systems. Archived from the original PDF on 4 March Retrieved 8 December Article bottom of page.
Napalm: An American Biography. Harvard University Press. Neer Harvard University Press pp”. Nikola Budanovic. Retrieved 8 November Arsenal Industry Mount Gun ownership Science fiction. Categories : Explosive weapons Incendiary weapons. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.
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